Process of PCB assembly

PCB Assembly or PCBA is the process of soldering electronic components to a printed circuit board. There are various stages within this process which are all necessary to work together in order to establish an integrated process. These individual stages must be compatible with each other and the minute process must be monitored to ensure that the optimum quality is maintained throughout the entire course of the assembly.

Note that assembly of a board differs from manufacturing a board. Manufacturing PCBs involves prototype creation and PCB designing. Once the board is complete, electronic components are soldered onto it prior to using it in any electronic gadget or device.

The Assembly Process

The PCB assembly process includes applying solder paste to the PCB, pick and place, soldering, inspection, and testing.

•Solder Paste

Solder PasteSolder paste is a mixture of small granules of solder and solder flux. Before attaching the components to the board, you need to add solder paste to the areas of the PCB where soldering is necessary. These areas are usually the component pads. You can accomplish this task with the use of a solder screen. The process of depositing the paste in place is relatively similar to a printing process.

Place the solder screen directly onto the board. With the solder screen properly positioned, move a runner across it and squeeze a small amount of solder paste through its holes and onto the surface of the board. Since the solder screen had been made from the PCB files, it already has holes on the solder pads’ positions, so the solder is applied only on the pads.

Control the amount of solder that you apply to the board as to make sure that the ensuing joints have the proper amount of solder.

•Pick and Place

After adding solder paste to the board, it is then forwarded to the process of pick and place. In this stage of the PCB assembly process, a machine filled with component reels picks the components up from the reels and places them on the right position on the PCB.
The components that are placed on the board are sustained by the pressure of the solder paste. This is enough to keep the components in place, given that the PCB is not jolted.

The component information and position required to program the machine used in “pick and place” is derived from the PCB design information. This simplifies the programming of the pick and place process.


SolderingOnce you have added the components to the board, the next step is to pass the board through the soldering machine. However, this process is not commonly used for surface mount components. If you are using wave soldering, then you do not need to add solder paste to the board because the wave soldering machine already provides the solder. Instead of wave soldering, you can use re-flow soldering techniques, which are more widely used these days.


After the soldering process, the boards are typically inspected for quality control. Surface mount boards that employ a huge number of components are not manually inspected. Instead, they are optically inspected by means of machines that can detect misplaced components, poor joints, and sometimes wrong components.


Testing of the electronic products is necessary before transporting them from the factory. There are many ways to test PCBs, such as electrical continuity testing, microsectioning, and shear testing.


In order to make sure that the PCB manufacturing process is operating satisfactorily, there must be feedback from the outputs. And thus, it is necessary to investigate any detected failure. Defects can be detected as early as the optical inspection stage and quickly rectified so that the subsequent boards are not built with similar problems.


If you’re looking for top quality Printed Circuit Boards, is the website for you. We use high caliber equipment in the PCB assembly process and our special applications can accommodate more challenging board requirements.

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Understanding Golf Shoes

There used to be a time when golf shoes weren’t that big of a deal. People would simply put on a pair that they were comfortable with then walk to the green to play a round of golf. Nowadays, the simple approach of wearing what’s comfortable is no longer enough.

People need to put a little bit more thought into the pair of shoes that they wear for each game. If they want to take golf as a sport seriously, then wearing the right pair of shoes is one of the first big steps they can take in that direction.

Choosing the right pair of shoes means learning how they can affect a golfer’s game. Thankfully, understanding golf shoes isn’t as difficult as most people would think it is. All they really need is a little bit of interest. Here are a few important things that every golfer needs to know about the shoes they were on the green.

What makes them special?

golfThe shoes that golfers wear are noticeably different from other kinds of shoes. This is perfectly normal. In other sports, people also tend to wear a unique pair of shoes. In basketball, the shoes have design elements which help to add spring in the player’s steps. In soccer, the cleats help the players get some traction on the ground.

The thing that separates golf shoes is that they have spikes. These spikes weren’t always on there. There used to be a time when people simply wore whatever shoes suited their fancy. It wasn’t later on that the fashion of wearing spiked shoes became popular.

The reason why these shoes have spikes is to add stability. Golf is a game of precision. Everything a golfer does all leads up to the club hitting the golf ball in the best possible way to achieve a great shot. Stability is one of the major elements of a great shot.

The shoes add some stability. The spikes underneath the shoe help plant the golfer in the right position. This lowers the chance that the golfer will ruin their position once they swing.

Made for comfort

It’s generally advised for golfers to buy shoes which are a bit tight. This is to avoid any sort of slippage inside the shoe. That said, comfort is still an important factor. Golfers will have to walk long distances and wear their shoes for several hours on end, hence the reason why it needs to be comfortable.

This isn’t that much of an issue though. A vast majority of the companies that make golf equipment design their shoes with comfort in mind. These shoes may cost a lot of money, but it’ll all be worth it in the end.

Golfers shouldn’t take a comfortable pair of shoes for granted. Wearing shoes that are uncomfortable can help increase fatigue and stress during a round of golf. This in turn can adversely affect a golfer’s performance.


golf playingMost, if not all, golf shoes nowadays are waterproof. People don’t need to panic or worry about getting their shoes wet or having their shoes being exposed to the elements.

Manufacturers understand that the sport of golf is one played outdoors. Keeping that in mind, these manufacturers design their shoes and use materials that will help it endure anything Mother Nature can throw at it.

The looks

Some people have this preconceived notion that shoes are styled for the rich. This simply isn’t true. To be sure, there was a time when the shoes were a bit old fashioned or reserved in its style. However, the latest design trends have shown that golf shoes have grown out of its old look as some of the new shoes can appeal to most people.

Pitfalls in Real Estate Newbies Must avoid

Lots of people get into real estate business seeing its luxurious end. But as fast as they get in, the faster they went out of this business.

When you are just starting on real estate selling, you are likely to commit mistakes that are trivial to your business. To avoid them, you need to somehow identify them and immediately correct them as any of these mistakes will seriously limit your chance for success.

Inadequate Learning and Training

Learning and TrainingLearning and Training are essentials in every business. Whether you get them from experience or in-class training, it doesn’t matter. But having both in a combination is a great option.

Now that we are living in a world where opportunities can be easily reached out and that includes education, we are indeed lucky. Surprisingly, there are some people who won’t take the initiative to learn before they succumbed to failure. Some permit themselves to be exposed to failures that could have been avoided if they just get some learning before getting into business of their choice.

Real estate investment can be developed in many ways. You can get online courses, and have access to available references in the internet. With constant exposure to learning of what the trade is all about, backed up with your deep interest, you will soon get enough of what you ought to know.

Getting Your Education from the Wrong Guy

Education plays a critical role in your success. If you are exposed to the wrong kind of learning when you start, there’s a great possibility that will end up on the wrong side of the track. Therefore, it is essential to learn from those who had real knowledge of the real estate trade and won’t keep anything from you to lead you to your success.

The internet is a good way of enhancing your knowledge on real estate business. It is too saturated with information that is both good and bad. The least that you can do therefore is to be able to filter the right information that you need. Many so-called “knowledgeable experts” on the field are actually “dabblers” who wants to be “jack-of-all-trades” and yet lack the focus to master something as they were the ones who easily gave up.

Avoid dabblers as they can often mislead you. Join communities so you will be referred to real mentors and gurus.

Moving Into Action

Education is nothing when it remains in your head. Be sure to follow up everything with an active. Proactive learning is always better than passive learning. When education is critical in your business, so is time and delayed action could mean letting opportunities fly and never to come back again.

Absence of Realistic Expectations

Pitfalls in Real EstateMore often than not, newbies got unrealistic expectations when it comes to real estate. It may be about the cost of repair, the duration of the project, or the workflow relative to the task of completing the project. Most often, a newbie’s expectation is either too high or too low. With this kind of mindset, they often get too greedy when doing wholesaling and charge more than what is expected. If repairing, they can always underestimate the cost. Things like this can be damaging to your operation as it is sure to break ties or working relationship with others. A business need long term relationship and extending networks rather than breaking ties because of a bad attitude.

Though a project in specific and the business in general seldom go on as expected, if you are a knowledgeable real estate investor, you are always equipped with a backup plan to support unexpected occurrence of some conditions.

Wrong Preferences

One great mistake that a newbie can commit after getting a few deals is to focus on the quantity than on the quality deals. This mindset lessens their chances to get more profitable deals. When an excited newbie investor loaded up on properties, thinking he can earn more profit from them, when sudden downturn strikes, he can find himself holding on to a lot of worthless inventory of asset.

When this condition occurs, the person with this kind of mindset is sure to easily turn away and get himself rid of the business. A good investor on the other hand knows that this can be the best opportunity to raise a fortune.

Slow Getting Out from a Bad Deal

Since newbies have not experience on having a steady stream of leads coming in, they usually don’t have any idea on what a profitable deal may appear to be. They tend to expect the slow turnabout and therefore just want to get deals done even if means his loss.

Author Bio:
real estate We are your first and one stop shop for Long island real estate. Whether its residential, commercial, buy, rent or sell we can assist with the best deals. Long Island real estate usually depicted the styles of architecture that were usually seen in the homes and palaces of European countries.

The Military Challenge Coin Game Tradition

One of the best rewards given to a person in the military for a job well done is custom military coins. Commonly used in the military before, these custom military coins are now also given to and collected by other non-military entities like the police and fire fighting departments, who have their own customized versions of these coins.Whether you are in the Army, the Navy or the Air Force, these military coins are ways to recognize that you have made a big impact not only in your military unit but also in the whole military as well.Go through this site for more idea.

These custom military coins are also made to quickly identify a person based on his military affiliation. From as early as World War I until now, soldiers are known to always keep these military coins. All coin bearers keep these coins and bring them everywhere they go. These coins also serve as a reminder for each individual that they are part of the military and their serving unit. Each military coin serves as a constant memory reminder which comes along with it.

Another main reason why each member of the military needs to bring their own military coin everywhere they go is because of an old military tradition.

This has been a tradition among all ranks and should not be broken nor skipped by anyone. The own military coin should be with the soldier or coin bearer all the time because of the military challenge coin game which may happen anywhere, at any time.

When a soldier initiates a military challenge coin game, he or she can do it anywhere, at anytime he wants. The military challenge coin game can be held in a bar, in a restaurant, in the field or even in the soldier’s quarters. Before the game starts, the challenger or the person who started the military challenge coin game must bring out his or her military coin for everyone to see. After everyone sees the military coin the challenger holds up, an announcement that a military coin check-up will be made should be shouted for everyone to hear.

Most of the military challenge coin games are initiated by the challenger.

However, there are also some times that a military challenge coin game has started without a challenger or an individual’s intention. If a military coin drop on the table or on the floor, as long as someone heard the sound the coin made upon dropping, a military challenge coin game can be initiated.


Once a military challenge game has started, all members of the military unit need to participate. Each person must present his or her own military coin during the coin check-up. If someone cannot find or show his or her own coin, then, that person needs to take the consequences or punishment.

At the end of the game, the person who was not able to show his or her military coin needs to buy a round of drinks for everyone who were able to show their military coins. However, in the event that everyone were able to present their own military coins during the game, then, the challenger who initiated the challenge, needs to buy a round of drinks for everyone.

If a person does not want to participate in the military challenge coin game, then, he or she will be required to buy a round of drinks for everyone who joined the challenge. In any case that the loser refused to buy a round of drinks for all the winners, then, that person would need to face the consequences too. Some of the consequences that a person may get are to be sanctioned by all the participants or worse, to be forced to hand in his issued custom military coins.

What Are Trading Pins?

To get away from an everyday routine and to become stress-free, most people would get into a hobby. The quicker way to start a hobby is to collect special items. Some would even go as far as spending money for it and even save up money just for the sake of maintaining their collection. Rare coins and hard-to-find stamps are what some would collect, while other would go for finding and collecting trading pins.

These kinds of pins would have different themes and you can get them from different places.

Amusement parks like Disneyland have their own special pins available from their souvenir shops, while some would only be available during a special trading event. This kind of event would have traders gather in the park where they can trade with other collectors or even with the Disney cast themselves.

Trading PinsWhen it comes to sports, there are also pins that will be available. Some sports teams and clubs would have their own pins made to remember certain events. Some pins are also made yearly and will have an updated design each time. These trading pins will have the name of the team and then, it’s either they put the team’s logo or the face of their mascot on it. Certain sports-themed pins are only made rarely and these are what long-time collectors would be looking for.

For trading pins, they use metal as the base and copper is usually the type of metal that they use for it. When adding the design, the material used is enamel powder and then clear epoxy is used to protect the design. The size of the pins would go to around 1.75 inches to 2 inches. A pin would usually have a prong at its back and will be held in place by military clasps.

Collecting pins can appeal to people of different ages. Kids would most likely start collecting the pins that are available from amusement parks since the designs are all lively and will remind them of their trip to the park. Some would go for collecting trading pins that are themed after sports (like baseball), where they would show off their pins that are themed after their favorite team. Some collectors would just simply collect and keep certain themes running among their collections, while others would try to go as far as spending a lot of money just to complete theirs.

If the pins that you want are not sold anymore, you can then go with the option of trading with others. It is suggested to do a bit of research to get the details and history of the pin that you want. Most of the time, the information will be available online or you can also ask for the information from other collectors. To keep the integrity of collectors that offer their pins for trade, they make sure the information that they give out is accurate.

If you want to have a great chance of finding the pins that you want, you can try attending events that other collectors will attend as well. You can easily tell if a person is a custom pin collector he usually wears the pins that are for trade on his clothes like his scarf, vest, shirt, and even his hat. Just call their attention so they’ll know that you want to start a trade with them. When looking at their pins, you must not touch it but instead ask them to bring it closer. Show the pin that you want in exchange for his pin and wait for the collector to agree. A handshake and a simple, “Thank you,” at the end will properly close the trade.